Anaxyrus is Greek meaning "A king or chief"
fowleri is to honor S.P. Fowler, a naturalist from Massachusetts.
2 - 3 in. (5.1 - 7.5 cm)
Virginia Record Length:
3.75 in. (9.5 cm)
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: This species is 2 to 3 inches (50-75 mm) long. Its dorsum color ranges from brown to olive to gray with a light middorsal stripe. The dark dorsal spots typically each have 3 or more warts. The cranial crests are small and connected to the parotoid glands. The venter is generally unspotted though some specimens have a large dark breast patch *11407* *1014*. Males are smaller than the females and have a black throat *1014*. This species hybridizes with Bufo americanus and Bufo terrestris making identification sometimes difficult *1014*.
REPRODUCTION: This species breeds from March to July. During the breeding season, the male emits a dischordant call lasting 1-4 seconds. Mating occurs in the shallows along stream, lake and pond borders *11407*. Fertilization is external *11406*. The female lays approximately 7000 eggs in 2 gelatinous strings. The eggs hatch in about 1 week. These tadpoles metamorphose in 1 to 2 months. The newly transformed toads range in size from 8 to 11 mm *1014*.
BEHAVIOR: During breeding season, males call from shallow bodies of water including ditches, ponds and streams. Toads may appear in areas where not previously known during heavy rains following a period of drought *11407*. This species is an insectivore *11284*.
LIMITING FACTORS: This species requires shallow water for breeding *1014*.
AQUATIC/TERRESTRIAL ASSOCIATIONS: This species is abundant on the coastal plain with a more patchy distribution further inland. The inland populations are typically found in sandy areas around shores of lakes or in river valleys *11407*.
References for Life History
- 1014 - Martof, B.S., Palmer, W.M., Bailey, J.R., Harrison, III J.R., 1980, Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia, 264 pgs., UNC Press, Chapel Hill, NC
- 11284 - Wilson, L.A., 1995, Land manager's guide to the amphibians and reptiles of the South, 360 pp. pgs., The Nature Conservancy, Southeastern Region, Chapel Hill, NC
- 11406 - Duellman, William E. and, Trueb, Linda, 1986, Biology of Amphibians, 671 pgs., The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
- 11407 - Conant, Roger and, Collins, John T., 1998, Peterson Field Guide: Reptiles and Amphibians, Eastern/Central North America, 616 pgs., Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston
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Verified County/City Occurrence
Charles City County
Clifton Forge City
Isle of Wight County
James City County
King and Queen County
King William County
New Kent County
Newport News City
Prince Edward County
Prince George County
Prince William County
Virginia Beach City
Verified in 87 Counties/Cities.